Statistics- Fundamentals of Probability

Today we will cover more material than usual. So you might want to split it up into 2 or more days based on your convenience.


You might have learned some basic probability in high school. Its still worth it to quickly skim through the main concepts. The following videos explain the important concepts and are very easy to understand. In addition to the following videos, if you have forgotten permutation & combination videos feel free to revise those concepts.

Histograms Explained

A histogram is a plot that shows the frequency distribution (shape) of a set of continuos data.


Drawing Histograms Manually

Note- there is a flaw in the histograms drawn in the videos below- they are column/bar charts. A correct histogram has continuous data and there are no gaps between the bars. Keep that in mind! Here is a good article explaining that.

Using Data Analysis tool-pack to draw a Histogram in Excel
Macros in Excel

All users need to first activate the 'Developer' tab in the ribbon in order to add macros. For Mac users the steps are- To display the Developer tab, click on the Preferences under the Excel menu at the top of the screen. Under Excel Preferences, click on the Ribbon icon in the Sharing and Privacy section. In the Customize section, check Developer in the list of tabs to show. Then click on the OK button.

SQL- Introduction to Relational Model

Relational Algebra

The theoretical concepts behind databases stem from relational algebra- even complex SQL queries sound easy to someone who has a strong grasp of relational algebra. So spending some time on this topic is a great idea!

Data in Action