top of page

PR and Communication- Introduction to Public Relations

What is PR?

Nonprofits and government organisations always collaborate with print/TV and digital media folks, especially for advocacy purposes. Many policy analysts also end up in PR careers because they are interested in outreach and communications. Therefore, it’s a good idea to have a sense of PR. As a policy leader, you also need to interact with the press and being a strong communicator will always help with that. The upcoming series of lessons will make you familiar with some important aspects of public relations and PR careers.

Quantitative Analysis using R- Apply family of Functions

Apply Functions

Apply functions are used to perform an operation or to apply a set of commands to all elements of an object like a vector, an array, a data frame etc. Basically, it iterates an operation over elements of an object. Don’t worry if you did not understand- the following videos provide a very clear and concise explanation of apply functions

lapply() and sapply()

lapply() always returns a list and sapply() tries to simplify the output by returning a vector or matrix if possible- hence the ‘l’ and ’s’ respectively.


tapply() allows you to create tables (hence the ‘t’) of values generated by applying a function to subsets of a vector or any other object.

Policy in Action

bottom of page