A graph in the context of computer science is made up of vertices/nodes which are connected by edges/lines. Study of such graphs is called graph theory. Graphs have many applications in real life. For example Google maps uses graph theory to tell the most efficient path between two or more locations.
Graph Theory- A Closer Look
Brute Force Algorithm
A good reading on Brute Force.
This video is longer than usual but it summarizes the key takeaways from behavioral economics as a product/UX professional.